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Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

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Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

A technical article.

It's long. I'm still reading.



Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by gabriella [180.890] on August 06, 2004 at 13:36:16:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

Thanks for posting this thessa, it looks really good, will read it later. I noticed it's by Gregory Kelly, who I think worked with Dr. D'Adamo for a time.

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Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by R. [27.62] on August 06, 2004 at 21:23:00:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

I have a couple of comments.

1. It is strange that the article said that HCl's main function was to was to maintain a sterile environment and to initiate the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin. I had learned that it also breaks up proteins into amino acids.

2. "Without adequate gastric secretions, macromolecules may be incompletely digested and may subsequently be absorbed into the systemic circulation."

Somebody in a yahoo group who has studies biochemistry said that even if you have enough digestive enzymes, you will not fully break apart all proteins into single amino acids because of the chemistry of how protease enzymes work. Each digestive enzyme that works on protein only breaks bonds for a small subset of amino acids. So you end up with small peptides, not individual amino acids for the most part.



Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by Lurch [1574.1228] on August 07, 2004 at 06:37:14:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

I've had Heidelberg Gastric Analysis tests done before and I was found to have hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid). I've been on betaine HCL a few times but I no longer take it. I've heard that taking plant enzymes and/or pancreatin is a better idea than HCL. Here's some info about Dr. Howard Loomis' enzymes. He's one of the "enzyme pioneers".

What I've found that helps is acidifying my meal regularly with distilled vinegar, salsa, etc.
I haven't read the full HCL article yet, but I'm going to.

Regards,

Lurch




Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by lmd [274.152] on August 07, 2004 at 07:21:29:

In Reply to: Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by R. [27.62] on August 06, 2004 at 21:23:00:

Agreed. Wouldn`t the macromolecules be moredifficult to bring into the blood stream? Size is important, thus more complete breakdown is efficient use of the food. Also, dogs have a very high amount of HCl in their digestive system, meant to allow rapid digestion, because transit time for dogs is at least four times faster than for humans. Their inherent food is high in protein(not the commercial stuff) and this is a requirment for high levels of HCl for digestion of the protein.

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Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by thessa [174.20] on August 07, 2004 at 07:34:49:

In Reply to: Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by R. [27.62] on August 06, 2004 at 21:23:00:

"In the stomach, HCl's primary function is to maintain a sterile environment and to initiate the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin."

The author states this is the first sentence of the abstract though.
"Hydrochloric acid (HCl) secretion assists protein digestion by activating pepsinogen to pepsin, renders the stomach sterile against orally-ingested pathogens, prevents bacterial or fungal overgrowth of the small intestine, encourages the flow of bile and pancreatic enzymes, and facilitates the absorption of a variety of nutrients, including folic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, non-heme iron, and some forms of calcium, magnesium, and zinc."

So according to him, it's not the acid itself that digests the proteins, it's the pepsin that digests the proteins, but the creation of pepsin is dependant on the presence of HCL. A detail I had forgotten... So, the digestion of proteins is one of the main functions of HCL because of its relationship to pepsin.

Somebody in a yahoo group who has studies biochemistry said...
This is probably true. I do know that even a healthy digestive tract absorbs whole, intact proteins into the bloodstream. At least that is according to the Bland crew (Functional medicine). But - just because some molecules get by like this, and may even serve a specific purpose that we have yet to discover, we also need to break down a large part of the proteins we eat into amino acids via digestion in the gut. There are plenty of enzymes outside the gut too... which could be used to digest large molecules that break through undigested.



Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by thessa [174.20] on August 07, 2004 at 07:41:01:

In Reply to: Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by Lurch [1574.1228] on August 07, 2004 at 06:37:14:

Thanks Lurch.

I agree with you. I always suggest plant based enzymes and herbs to stimulate the stomach's secretion of HCL instead of supplying HCL directly. It seems like the author of this article advises betaine hydrochloride, but he does touch on pungent herbs and vinegar right before the section titled "Clinical Implications of Decreased HCl".

Thanks for the link.



Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by Lurch [1574.1228] on August 07, 2004 at 08:19:37:

In Reply to: Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 07, 2004 at 07:41:01:

Hi Thessa,

Dr. Loomis changed his website a little. He used to have an article there that explained why he thinks that HCI is not the answer for low or absent stomach acid. Seems like he has taken away some articles and/or refined them.

I copied the HCI article. I'm going to check it out.
Thank you.

Lurch


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Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications (Archive.)

Posted by Walt Stoll [9.8] on August 07, 2004 at 08:56:52:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

Thanks, Thessa.

Walt

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Want complex....chew on this

Posted by Paulc [1041.535] on August 07, 2004 at 14:48:59:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

Mechanism of action and control in the digestion of proteins and peptides in
humans]

[Article in Portuguese]

Frenhani PB, Burini RC.

Centro de Metabolismo e Nutricao (CeMeNutri) da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade
Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Botucatu.

This review aims to report the major control mechanisms of protein and peptides digestion of special
interest in human patients. Regarding protein assimilation its digestive process begins at the stomach
with some not so indispensable actions comparatively to those of duodenal/jejunal lumen. However
even the intestine processes are partially under gastric secretion control. Proteolytic enzyme activities
are related to protein structure and amino acid constituents, tertiary and quartenary structures need
HCl denaturation prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereafter the exopeptidases are guided by either
NH2 (aminopeptidases) or COOH (carboxypeptidases) terminals of the molecule while
endopeptidases are oriented by the specific amino acids constituents of the peptide. Both dietary and
luminal secreted proteins and polypeptides undergo to either limited or complete proteolysis resulting
basic or neutral free-amino acids (40%) or dioctapeptides. The brush border peptidases continue to
degrade oligopeptide to di-tripeptides and neutral free-amino acids. Some peptides are uptaked by
the enterocytes whose cytosolic peptidases complete the hydrolysis. Hence the digestive products
flowing in the portal vein are mainly free-amino acids from either luminal or cytosolic hydrolysis and
some di-tripeptides intactly absorbed. Both mechanical and chemical processes of digestion are
under neural (vagal), neuroendocrinal (acetilcholine), endocrinal (gastrin, secretin and
cholecystokinin) or paracrinal (histamine) controls. The gastric phase (hydrochloric acid and
pepsinogen secretions) is activated by gastrin, histamine and acetilcholine which respond to both
dietary-amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine) and mechanic distention of stomach. The
pancreatic secretion is stimulated by either cephalic or gastric phases and has influence on the
intestinal phase of digestion. The intestinal types of cells S and I release secretin and cholecystokinin
respectively in response of acid quimo (cells S) or amino acids and peptides (cells I) in the lumen.
Secretin stimulates the releasing of water, bicarbonate and enteropeptidases whereas cholecystokinin
acts on pancreatic enzymes.

Publication Types:
Review
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10751901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications

Posted by R. [27.1263] on August 07, 2004 at 16:38:46:

In Reply to: Re: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 07, 2004 at 07:34:49:

A textbook I have states that stomach acid denatures many proteins so that proteolytic enzymes can reach internal peptide bonds.

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Re: Want complex....chew on this

Posted by thessa [112.20] on August 08, 2004 at 08:26:46:

In Reply to: Want complex....chew on this posted by Paulc [1041.535] on August 07, 2004 at 14:48:59:

Thanks Paul!



Re: Want complex....chew on this

Posted by Paulc [1041.535] on August 08, 2004 at 15:17:48:

In Reply to: Re: Want complex....chew on this posted by thessa [112.20] on August 08, 2004 at 08:26:46:

Hey..did you ever get to look at my snaps...



Re: Want complex....chew on this

Posted by thessa [174.20] on August 09, 2004 at 06:56:45:

In Reply to: Re: Want complex....chew on this posted by Paulc [1041.535] on August 08, 2004 at 15:17:48:

Yeah! Did you see my response on the other thread? They're beauties!



Re: Want complex....chew on this

Posted by Paulc [1041.535] on August 09, 2004 at 08:16:10:

In Reply to: Re: Want complex....chew on this posted by thessa [174.20] on August 09, 2004 at 06:56:45:

I was away on a mini vacation and I guess the mercury thread dropped off the bottom. Glad you liked them...


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That is a mouthful.

Posted by Vince F [173.9] on August 09, 2004 at 09:14:52:

In Reply to: Hydrochloric Acid: Physiological Functions and Clinical Implications posted by thessa [174.20] on August 06, 2004 at 13:05:16:

Having had food sensitivities and possibly absorption problems since nutrient suppliments have worked like pain killers and stimulants, I should look into acid and absorption. I rarely get heartburn or ever did. I should look into low acid, and see if it fits.

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