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Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa

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Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa

Posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:48:20:

"The human large intestine is covered with a protective mucus coating, which is heavily colonized by complex bacterial populations that are distinct from those in the gut lumen. Little is known of the composition and metabolic activities of these biofilms, although they are likely to play an important role in mucus breakdown. The aims of this study were to determine how intestinal bacteria colonize mucus and to study physiologic and enzymatic factors involved in the destruction of this glycoprotein. Colonization of mucin gels by fecal bacteria was studied in vitro, using a two-stage continuous culture system, simulating conditions of nutrient availability and limitation characteristic of the proximal (vessel 1) and distal (vessel 2) colon. The establishment of bacterial communities in mucin gels was investigated by selective culture methods, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, in association with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Gel samples were also taken for analysis of mucin-degrading enzymes and measurements of residual mucin sugars. Mucin gels were rapidly colonized by heterogeneous bacterial populations, especially members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, enterobacteria, and clostridia. Intestinal bacterial populations growing on mucin surfaces were shown to be phylogenetically and metabolically distinct from their planktonic counterparts.

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In conclusion, we know surprisingly little about the fine structure of bacterial mucin-degrading communities in human intestinal biofilms, their ecological significance in the colonic ecosystem as a whole, or their metabolic importance to the host. However, evidence suggests that these microbiotas are heterogeneous assemblages that form rapidly either on the surfaces of particulate matter in the intestinal lumen or in the mucous layer lining the mucosa (34, 39). While the in vitro modeling studies described here provide useful comparative information on the physiological activities of biofilm and nonadherent populations, the analytical methods employed were essentially destructive and did not provide information concerning the multicellular organization of the biofilm communities or of the spatial relationships between different groups of bacteria that play an important role in gut physiology."

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Another article: Microbial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract

Posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:52:19:

In Reply to: Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:48:20:

"The human gastrointestinal tract contains rich and diverse microbiotas along its length. However, while extensive studies have been made on lumenal bacterial communities in the gut, less work has been carried out on organisms growing in biofilms, where individual groups of bacteria exist in a multiplicity of different microhabitats and metabolic niches associated with the mucosa, the mucus layer and particulate surfaces in the gut lumen. Bacteria and yeasts also occur in biofilms attached to artificial surfaces and devices implanted in the host, such as in patients being fed via enteral tubes. Although we are just beginning to investigate the composition and metabolic activities of these structures, increasing evidence suggests that they are important to the host in both health and disease. There is mounting interest in mucosal biofilms in the colon, especially with respect to their role in inflammatory bowel disease. Because bacteria growing in biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics than unattached organisms, it is often difficult to modify the structure and composition of these communities, or to eradicate them from the body. However, recent work has shown that there is considerable potential to alter the species composition of mucosal biofilms in a beneficial way using synbiotics."



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Re: Article: Modulation of gut mucosal biofilms

Posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 01:01:25:

In Reply to: Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:48:20:

Nice graphics in this...



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Re: Article: Getting Rid of Gut Biofilm and The Critters It Protects

Posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 01:08:32:

In Reply to: Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:48:20:

Getting Rid of Gut Biofilm and The Critters It Protects posted Oct 14 08 4:06am Biofilm is thought by some LLMD's to be one of those "snags" to healing Lyme disease. As mentioned in a previous post, sometimes bacteria and other microbes cloak themselves in biofilm, a polysaccharide matrix comprised of minerals, metals and other elements, to protect themselves from anti-microbial treatments, which prevents antibiotics and other Lyme strategies from being fully effective.

When biofilm exists in the gut, it also disturbs digestion and prevents normal flora (like acidophilus) from thriving. If you have persistent dysbiosis, mysterious gut pain, or a borrelia infection that simply isn't responding to treatments, consider the possibility that biofilm may be impeding your progress.

Unfortunately, medicine is still in its infancy when it comes to understanding biofilm and its role in Lyme disease. It is even less equipped to offer effective treatments that will break it down so that microbes can be accessed and eliminated.

Combining enzymes with heavy metal chelators (since the biofilm is comprised in part, of metals), and taking these on an empty stomach, is thought to be one potentially effective strategy for "punching holes" in the biofilm and thereby breaking down the bugs' protective polysaccharide blankies. Once this is done, then the Lyme sufferer can take anti-microbials to attack bacteria, yeast and other bugs. Subsequently, toxin binders can be ingested to clean up the mess left behind by the dead critters.

Tentatively, some of the enzymatic products that are currently being used for the hole-punching process include: SPS 30 (www.theramedix.net) and Mucostop by Enzymedica (www.enzymedica.com). Other enzymes that are being experimented with for Lyme sufferers with gut biofilm include: Lumbrokinase, Rechts-Regulat and serrapeptase. These latter enzymes, incidentally, are also widely used for hypercoagulation in Lyme. (So you might be able to kill two birds with one stone here; that is, break down biofilm while treating hypercoagulation).

Gut biofilm toxin binders, according to Dr. A. Derksen, a Lyme-literate N.D., include: fiber, clays, zeolites, chlorella, modifilan, apple pectin, butyrate, bentonite and activated charcoal.

A heavy metal protocol may comprise any myriad of options, which I have discussed (and will continue to discuss) in other blog posts.

In the meantime, how do you know if you have gut biofilm? Well, isn't that always the question in Lyme disease? We never seem to know what's wrong with us, do we?

My humble suggestion (which should never to be taken as medical advice! I'm just a researcher, not a medical expert), if you have any of the above-named conditions, and are actively chelating metals and treating hypercoagulation, would be to take your chelator, if possible, at the same time that you take your enzymes for hypercoagulation. After that, take your bug-killers, and over time, see if that seems to be more effective than the schedule that you used to follow for taking all of the above.

If you aren't chelating metals or taking enzymes already, deciding whether to treat for biofilm may be a tougher decision. In any case, I would advise seeking out a biofilm-literate Lyme doctor (which are bound to be even more scarce than LLMD's).

I don't know how seriously we should take the idea of biofilm and its role in Lyme disease. Perhaps more than we have been, but not to the exclusion of other roadblocks to healing, as there are often many. This is just another one you may want to consider.



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Re: Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa -- Archive in LGS

Posted by Walt Stoll [93.7579] on April 16, 2009 at 08:37:08:

In Reply to: Article: Biofilms break down gut mucosa posted by Sapphire [2999.7489] on April 15, 2009 at 00:48:20:

Thanks, Sapphire.

Walt


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